Kosh is a very typical part of the architecture of old Bukhara. In Bukhara all monuments standing face to face are called Kosh – Double or Twin. Madrasah Abdulaziz (17th century) was built in front of the madrasah Ulugh Beg (15th century). These twin madrasahs have the same architectural forms with a big front portal and its two minarets as well as 4 inner portals inside the constructions.
Ulugh Beg – the king astronomer, a grandson of Tamerlane has organized construction of three madrasahs, one in Samarkand and two in Bukhara. And the one in the center of Bukhara is the oldest one(1417). The portal of the madrasah was decorated with stars. The portal of the madrasah has been covered with beautiful inscriptions of wisdom: “May the doors of Allah be open to everyone who study the wisdom in the books”. The madrasah was first reconstructed by the order of Shaybanid Abdulla Khan and the last biggest reconstructions have been realized in 1994 for 500 years of anniversary of Ulugh Beg.
On the other side of the street the madrasah of Khan Abdulaziz stays non-restored. This fact helps it save its soul of a real ancient madrasah. Some of its few ceramic tiles, portals decorated in Iranian style, walls covered with stars and Chinese landscapes, amazingly well conserved hujra-rooms are very interesting to see. Both madrasahs are in the heart of the old Bukhara and easy to find. The left side of the main façade and the right side of the courtyard were not decorated because of the change of rulers in Bukhara (1652).
Kosh madrasah, Kalon complex and the bazaar Toki-Zargaron are lined in the same street close to each other.