Afrosayob or Afrasiyab is an old citadel with a surface of over 200 hectares located on the north of modern Samarkand. Among all citadels of Central Asia Afrosiyob was the biggest and one of the oldest. The beginning of our era Samarkand was doubtlessly the cultural and economic centre of Central Asia.
The city has been destroyed by the Arabs (8th century) and the Mongols (12th century). After the last destruction the citizens did not reconstruct it and they have built new Samarkand, the Samarkand that we know.
The archaeologists started excavating the site by the end of the 19th century immediately after occupation of Central Asia by Russian Tsarist armies. Some of the valuable objects found in the excavations were sent to Russia and later some were placed in the museum of history of Samarkand.
In the 6th – 7th centuries the walls of the palace had been decorated with beautiful frescos. A part of these frescos is well conserved where one can see the king of Samarkand receiving ambassadors of different countries, Chinese concubines, hunt, legendary animals etc. Even if the citadel is now ruined, walked in this ruined city can be an interesting activity to experience in Samarkand.