Uzbekistan is a name of an ancient region of the world which used to be called with different names, ruled by different dynasties during the last 3000 years. Being an important step between China and India it became the center of the Great Silk Road and this longest trade road of all history gifted Uzbekistan with splendors like: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva …
The region has been under rule of Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Mongols, Turks … and Russians during different parts of its history.
3000 years ago the territory of Uzbekistan was already a home for tribes who were living along the main 2 rivers of the region – Amudarya and Syrdarya. As a bid part of current Uzbekistan lied between these 2 rivers it was longtime called Transoxiana – the lands between 2 rivers. In the first millennium before Jesus Christ the Transoxiana was invaded by Persian rulers.
Uzbekistan History and Alexander the Great
The 4th century BC is known as the period of great competitions between the Greeks and the Persian. At the same time Alexander the Great arrives in Central Asia for making his road to India and destroys the Persian culture which was dominating in most of the Orient at these times. After Alexander the Great most of Uzbekistan and Central Asia.
Uzbekistan History and the Arabs
In the 7th and 8th centuries central Asia lives another big invasion where the Arabs took control over all Central Asia which brought Islam to the region and this religion was spread to the whole world from Central Asia. Even if the Arabs stayed in Central Asia only a short period of time but it was enough for bringing their language, culture and religion.
Uzbekistan History and Genghis Khan and Amir Temur / Tamerlane
The beginning of the 13th century Uzbek and Central Asian cities have all been conquered by Mongols and within a few years their leader Genghis Khan turned every city into dust. Central Asia has lived nearly the same volume of destructions during Russian invasion in the end of 19th century. Genghis and his descendants kept Central Asia as their property until 1370 where Amir Temur known as Tamerlane started gathering all regions of Central Asia around his capital Samarkand. Temur could make a great empire which included half of the lands of the world of his time and with his passion for science and culture he managed to establish a powerful cultural center of the whole Islamic world around Samarkand.
Unfortunately, his sudden death in 1405 was followed by endless fights for throne among his children and generals. Only 4 years after his death his grandson Ulugh Beg becomes the lord of Samarkand. 40 years later, after the death of Ulugh Beg Amir Temur’s empire started weakening and later was replaced by the Uzbeks.
Uzbekistan’s History of Emirs and Khans
The Uzbeks could create a strong government which included all Central Asia but their reign did not last long time. Their continuous fights against each other broke the Khanate into 2 parts with 2 different capitals: one in Khiva and the second in Bukhara. In that way all Central Asia was divided into 2 big parts.
The rivalry between Khiva and Bukhara ad never stopped and due to that Bukhara later-on loses the Fergana Valley and these 3 neighboring governments of Central Asia (in Bukhara, Khiva and Fergana) were not ready to face one of the best organized conquests of the enemies.
Uzbekistan and Russian Invasion
Simultaneously, when the Uzbek Khanates were getting weaker Russia was becoming more and more stronger and they were slow by slow starting to control the trade around and in Central Asia. Finally, it was not enough for them and the Russian Tsarist army started attacking to the Uzbek cities one after another and in 1885 all Uzbek and Central Asian territories were occupied by the Russian colonists.
The 20th century is remembered by the Uzbeks as the period of Tsars, Bolsheviks, the endless rebellions of Basmachi groups against the Soviets etc. In 1924 for the first time the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan was established and the country stayed as a part of the Soviet Empire until 1991, 31 August.
After being proclaimed as an Independent Republic Uzbekistan searched its own way to development. A new constitution of the country was adopted in 1992, new money Sum in 1994 etc. A great number of schools, colleges and hospitals have been built in Uzbekistan with the years of Independence guaranteeing free education and free healthcare to its citizens.
Understanding the tourism potential of the country the government has invested a lot for restoring the Monuments of local architecture and after 2000s the country started widely opening its doors to visitors who searched for original destinations. And now Uzbekistan has become one of the main cultural travel destinations for some European countries and from year to year the auditory of enthusiasts who want to visit this wonderful Silk Road Destination is getting larger.